Cognitive Changes with Aging; Baguel, Singh, Srivas and Kumar
Aging is a natural phenomenon associated with accumulation of several changes resulting in increased risk to various diseases. About 8.5% of total world population is aged 65 years and above, and around 40% of this elderly population is suffering with mild cognitive impairment. Such age associated cognitive impairment occurs in different domains such as attention, perception, reasoning, decision making, execution, speech and language. The impairment depends on vulnerability of different brain regions and their associated dysfunctions with advancing age. The cognitive impairment results in abnormal behavior which ultimately influences the quality of life and becomes a serious concern for the family and society. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying basis of cognitive changes during normal aging and pathological conditions. Such knowledge will help to develop strategies for the improvement of quality of life, particularly for elderly population. In this review, the authors discuss the age associated changes in different cognitive functions and elucidate the accompanying genetic and environmental factors. Altogether, it seems possible to maintain the cognitive functions intact during aging by following a balanced life style, proper exercise and enriched environment.